In Germany, universities, although public employers, are generally not required to promote most vacancies especially of academic positions (teaching and/or research) apart from tenured full professors . At the same time, anti-discrimination measures and equal opportunities only apply to marketed jobs and to the wording of the job advert. In the United States, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission has established guidelines for prohibited employment policies/practices. These regulations serve to discourage discrimination primarily based on race, colour, faith, intercourse, age, disability, etc. However, recruitment ethics is an space of enterprise that is prone to many different unethical and corrupt practices.